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Stefanie Bosch:

Designing and Implementing a Descriptive User Dashboard as a Basis for Reflective Learning


  • Python
  • Data Visualization
  • Web Development (for Mattermost Integration)
Academic Advisor
Conversational User Interfaces (CUI), Information Visualization, Reflective Technologies
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.)



In learning theory, reflecting on one's current behavior and perceptions is established as an integral and beneficial part of learning processes [1]. In HCI research, Fleck and Fitzgerald have introduced the Levels of Reflection [2] which describe different degrees of reflection (from non-reflective to reflection on social/ethical wider implications). In their framework, they bridge the gap between specific characteristics of reflection levels and requirements for technology that is capable of supporting the regarding level of reflection. The lowest level of reflection, i.e. description (Reflection Level 0) is considered to be a non-reflective description of information, e.g. in the form of data visualizations or simple information retrieval, however it forms the basis of reflective processes on higher reflection levels and may, depending on the context, itself inspire reflection on higher levels.


Physicians in residence (assistant physicians) go through a training program at the hospital, reconciling their day-to-day duties in the hospital and the requirements of the (specialist) training program. Among others, the consultation of senior and chief physicians is an important pillar in the medical training of assistant physicians.

In the clinical context, reflection opportunities in the form of consultations compete with everyday time-critical situations, so that assistant physicians increasingly consult senior physicians through conversational messenger systems (e.g. Mattermost [3]).

The research project DocTalk, which this thesis is linked to, examines in how far, reflective learning can be encouraged through the use of conversational technology of different complexity levels (from simple messenger systems over messenger systems including user reports to messenger systems including a (context-aware) conversational agent).


User dashboard in Mattermost, that visualizes recent requests and topics of user input as a basis for reflection (optional setting: reflective learning in the clinical setting)


  • Literature review on user dashboards, conversational user interfaces, reflective technologies
  • Collect data on users, context and tasks
  • Design a user dashboard for Mattermost as a part of the conversational user interface
  • Implement the user dashboard
  • Evaluate the dashboard in a qualitative user study
  • Visualize your results and analyze them


[1] DiSalvo, Betsy. 2016. ‘Participatory Design through a Learning Science Lens’. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 4459–63. San Jose California USA: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2858036.2858405.

[2] Fleck, Rowanne, and Geraldine Fitzpatrick. 2010. ‘Reflecting on Reflection: Framing a Design Landscape’. In Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group of Australia on Computer-Human Interaction - OZCHI ’10, 216. Brisbane, Australia: ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/1952222.1952269.

[3] Mattermost, Inc. 2021. ‘Mattermost’. 2021. https://mattermost.com.